A CBC with differential is a blood test that provides detailed information about your blood and their components levels. A CBC (Complete Blood Count) test can detect various diseases, such as anemia, leukemia, and infection. A healthcare professional will ask for a blood sample for a CBC with differential to measure the type of blood cells.
What is the Purpose of a CBC With Differential Test?
A CBC test helps to see the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood.
Following are the types of blood cells and their functions that are included in complete blood count:
- Red blood cells: These help to carry oxygen throughout your body.
- White blood cells: These prevent bacteria, viruses, or infection.
- Hemoglobin: It is the protein present in the red blood cells.
- Hematocrit: It is the total red blood cell levels in the blood.
- Platelets: These help in the process of blood clotting.
A CBC with a differential test will determine the amount of each type of white blood cell in your blood.
Type of White Blood Cells
Generally, there are five types of white blood cells present. Granulocytes are white blood cells that possess small granules (particles) containing proteins. Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
- Neutrophils: They help to kill and remove bacteria and fungi from your body. Neutrophils are the leading white blood cells that defend your body when any outside harmful substance enters your blood.
- Eosinophils: They eliminate parasites and cancer cells. Besides, protect your body in response to allergies.
- Basophils: These cells can detect whenever any infectious material attacks your body. Basophils include specific chemicals like histamine (an indicator of allergic disease) to help regulate your immune system’s response.
- Monocytes: These destroy bacteria and possess a higher lifetime than other cells.
- Lymphocytes: They prevent bacteria, viruses, and other harmful substances by developing antibodies. These cells include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells.
A CBC without a differential test measures the total number of white blood cells.
Why Would a Doctor Order a CBC With Differential Test?
A Complete Blood Count test is a routine blood test that can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as:
- See your overall health: A CBC can indicate the presence of diseases, including anemia, and leukemia, and check your current health condition.
- Find ongoing medical condition: A CBC can diagnose the reasons for symptoms like fatigue, tiredness, and illness. This test finds the abnormalities in your blood that can show severe disease.
- Observe a medical problem: A CBC follows the tracks of specific conditions that can show abnormal blood cell levels.
- Monitor the treatment for ongoing medical problems: A CBC can be used to monitor how well the treatment is going if you take medicines or supplements that may affect your blood cell levels.
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You may also need a CBC test if you experience the following symptoms:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Swelling or inflammation in your body
- Fatigue or weakness
- Pain in your joint
- Blood pressure disorders or disturbance in the heartbeat
The Procedure of CBC With Differential Test:
A CBC with the differential test is a simple blood test. You can schedule this test on a particular date or time before visiting the laboratory. A healthcare provider will ask you for a blood sample. They will inject a small needle attached to a test tube into a vein in your arm. A provider will store the required blood sample in a test tube or a specimen container.
Your blood sample will be kept at the laboratory for examination and diagnosis of certain diseases if you have one. The CBC with differential test results may be delivered within one or two days. A CBC test does not take longer than five minutes.
You can eat or drink before the test, but the following things you may need to consider:
- Inform your provider if you are taking medications.
- Fasting is required if your provider asks for more blood tests.
- Do not stop medication without consultation from your provider.
- Tell your provider if you experience high pain, dizziness, or extreme bleeding after the test.
You can talk to a doctor online for any specific preparation for the CBC test.
What diseases does CBC with differential Help to Detect?
A CBC with differential test can help to diagnose many possible health conditions, diseases, bacteria, and other disorders. These include:
- Anemia (A condition in which your body does not have required red blood cells that move oxygen through the body).
- Bone marrow disorders
- Infection or bacteria that result in low or a high white blood cell count
- Cancer such as leukemia and lymphoma
- Specific diseases include thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and agranulocytosis.
- Deficiencies of vitamins and mineral
- Side effects of medications and chemotherapy
CBC with Differential Normal Values:
The blood cells are measured in the unit of cells per liter (cells/L) or grams per deciliter (g/dL). The normal values for CBC with differential are listed below:
Red blood cell count:
- Male – 4.35 trillion to 5.65 trillion cells/L
- Female – 3.93 trillion to 5.13 trillion cells/L
- Male – 13.0 to 17.0 g/dL
- Female – 11.5 to 15.5 g/dL
- Male – 40 to 55%
- Female – 36 to 48%
- Male – 135 billion to 317 billion/L
- Female – 157 billion to 371 billion/L
White blood cell count
- For both males and females – 3.4 billion to 9.6 billion cells/L
The measurement of the components of white blood cells is expressed in percentages. The recommended ranges of each type of white blood cell count include
- Neutrophils: 40% to 60%
- Lymphocytes: 20% to 40%
- Monocytes: 2% to 8%
- Basophils: 0.5% to 1%
- Eosinophils: 1% to 4%
A CBC with differential test is a possible way to diagnose and control the disease. A CBC is a single blood test that can indicate several diseases. The specific disease may be identified before the appearance of symptoms with a complete blood count test. A healthcare provider will recommend some treatment based on your health conditions. You can get a doctor consultation online to see any disorders in your body.